Here’s everything you need to know about the different types of COVID-19 vaccines in the Philippines.
WHOLE VIRUS VACCINE OR INACTIVATED VACCINE (e.g., Sinovac)
The inactivated vaccines contain a weakened or deactivated form of the SARS-COV-2 virus (which causes COVID-19) to trigger the body’s protective immunity against it. The inactivated pathogens cannot infect or replicate cells. Instead, they trigger an immune response without causing the COVID-19 illness. This response is intended to build immune memory, which the body can use to fight off the virus in the future.
The technology behind inactivated vaccines is already well-established and has been used for Hepatitis A, rabies, polio, influenza, and patients with compromised immune systems. One of its highlights, and the reason it arrived first, is that it can be manufactured fairly easily.
It will be administered in two doses through intramuscular injection and may also need booster shots or adjuvant, which will boost the immune response.
Sinovac, also known as CoronaVac
CoronaVac is a vaccine developed by China’s Sinovac Biotech. It’s already being administered by countries in Asia, South America, and Europe. In a recent report by the Hacettepe University of Turkey, the vaccine is found to have an efficacy rate of 83.5%. The vaccine is administered in two doses, the second dose being 12 days later after the first.
CoronaVac in the Philippines:
- February 28, 2021 – 600,000 doses of CoronaVac donated by China arrived
- March 01, 2021 – The rollout of the 600,000 Sinovac doses began.
- March 24, 2021 (possible delivery) – 400,000 doses donated by the Chinese government
- March 28, 2021 (possible delivery) – 1 million doses procured by the Department of Health
Possible CoronaVac Side Effects include:
|Very Common (affects more than 10% of people)||Pain in the injection siteHeadachefatigue|
|Common (affects 1% – 10% of people)||Swelling, pruritus, erythema, induration in the injection siteMyalgiaNauseaDiarrheaArthralgiaCoughChillsPruritusLoss of appetiteRhinorrheaSore throatNasal congestionAbdominal pain|
|Uncommon (affects 0.1% – 1% of people)||Burn at injectionVomitHypersensitivityAbnormal skin and mucosaFeverTremorFlushingEdemaDizzinessdrowsiness|
|Rare (affects 0.01% – 0.1% of people)||Muscle spasmsEyelid edemaNosebleedsAbdominal distensionConstipationHyposmiaOcular congestionHot flashesHiccupConjunctival congestion|
|Serious||No serious adverse event related to vaccination was identified, although 20 CoronaVac recipients in the Philippines experienced chest pain or difficulty breathing on March 12. This side effect is still being studied and monitored by DOH.|
NON-REPLICATING VIRAL VECTOR VACCINE (e.g., AstraZeneca)
These vaccines use a modified but harmless version of the virus called viral vector that is modified to deliver the SARS-COV-2 genetic material. Said genetic material would make a specific SARS-COV-2 protein that the immune system recognizes to trigger as a response, building immune memory so the body can fight off the coronavirus in the future.
Non-replicating viral vector vaccination is another well-established technology that triggers strong immune responses since it involves B cells and T cells. One example of licensed vaccines using this technology is ebola vaccines. Unfortunately, unlike inactivated vaccines, this type of vaccine is more complex to manufacture. It must also be stored at specific low temperatures.
It will be administered in two doses through the intramuscular area. Also, recipients who were previously exposed to the vector virus will experience reduced effectiveness of the vaccine.
Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19, also known as AZD1222 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca (a British-Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company). It is found to have an efficacy rate of 76% against the coronavirus after the first dose, which rises to 82% after the second dose, 12 weeks later.
Oxford-AstraZeneca in the Philippines:
- March 04, 2021 – 525,600 doses of AstraZeneca vaccines donated by the Covax facility arrived.
- March 07, 2021 – 38,400 doses of AstraZeneca vaccines donated by the Covax facility arrived.
- March 12, 2021 – DOH Press Release to continue AstraZeneca vaccination and reassures the public amid AstraZeneca blood clotting reports in recipients from a few countries in the EU.
- March 15, 2021 – WHO advises countries to keep using the AstraZeneca vaccine
- March 22, 2021 (possible delivery) – 979,200 doses to be turned over to the Philippine government
- (yet to be determined) – 17 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccines
Possible Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effects include:
|Very Common (may affect more than 1 in 10 people)||tenderness, pain, warmth, itching or bruising where the injection is givengenerally feeling unwellfeeling tired (fatigue)chills or feeling feverishheadachefeeling sick (nausea)joint pain or muscle ache|
|Common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people)||swelling, redness or a lump at the injection sitefeverbeing sick (vomiting) or diarrhoeaflu-like symptoms, such as high temperature, sore throat, runny nose, cough and chills|
|Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)||feeling dizzydecreased appetiteabdominal painenlarged lymph nodesexcessive sweating, itchy skin or rash|
|Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)||severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)|
PROTEIN SUBUNIT VACCINES (E.G., NOVAVAX)
While the viral vector contains a harmless virus modified from the SARS-COV-2 virus, protein subunit vaccines contain specific pathogen’s proteins. These are proteins that are recognized by the immune system to trigger a response that builds immune memory that the body uses to fight off SARS-COV-2 in the future.
Many licensed vaccines also use this type of technology, for instance, vaccines for Hepatitis B, meningococcal disease, pneumococcal disease, and shingles. This is a guarantee that it is already well-established in the medical scene. Moreover, it is also another advantageous type of vaccine for those with compromised immune systems.
It is also relatively complex to manufacture and may need an adjuvant to boost immune response when administered.
Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, codenamed NVX-CoV2373
Novavax is a COVID-19 vaccine developed by Novavax, Inc., an American vaccine development and biotechnology company. It was only recently that the company released the final efficacy rate of their vaccine – a staggering 96.4%.
Novavax COVID-19 vaccine in the Philippines:
- March 16, 2021 – Vaccine czar Secretary Carlito Galvez Jr. announces that the Philippine government has signed a supply agreement with the Serum Institute of India to acquire 30 million doses of Novavax vaccine to be delivered in the third and fourth quarter of this year.
Possible Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effects include:
As a type of vaccine only containing a small part of the COVID-19 pathogen, the Novavax vaccine is less likely to cause strong side effects to recipients. But according to Dr Abisola Olulade of Sharp Rees-Stealy in San Diego, California, it will have similar side effects to the Pfizer and Moderna Vaccines, which include (Source: https://www.cdc.gov/):
- Pain, redness, and swelling in the injection site
- Muscle pain
GENETIC VACCINES (E.G., MODERNA, PFIZER-BIONTECH, JOHNSON & JOHNSON)
Genetic vaccines contain a segment of the SARS-COV-2 pathogen (virus) genetic material codes for a specific protein. This can be DNA or RNA. The genetic material will be used by the cells to create the SARS-COV-2 protein, which the immune system recognizes to trigger a response. This will, in turn, build immune memory, allowing the body to fight off the pathogen in the future.
While there are no other licensed vaccines using this technology, genetic vaccines have long been studied for decades. In fact, there were possible mRNA vaccines studied for illnesses and diseases such as influenza, Zika virus, rabies, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). In a report by the PHG Foundation of the University of Cambridge, this type of vaccine is safer since no infectious elements are used by producing them.
Genetic vaccines are also relatively low cost and simple, and fast to develop. However, like viral vector vaccines, it must also be stored at specific low temperatures.
Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine, also called Comirnaty vaccine
Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine was developed by the German biotechnology company BioNTech in partnership with Pfizer, an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation. The former was the initial developer of the vaccine, while the latter gave support in terms of clinical trials, logistics, and manufacturing.
In a recent press release by Pfizer, the vaccine’s efficacy rate was at least 97% against symptomatic COVID-19 cases and 94% against asymptomatic. It’s also another two-dosethe series, with the second dose administered after 21 days.
Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in the Philippines:April 2021 – 117,000 Pfizer vaccines will arrive
Possible Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine Side Effects include:
|Very common (≥1/10)||HeadacheArthralgiaMyalgiainjection site painFatigueChillspyrexia (higher frequency after 2nd dose)injection site swelling|
|Common (≥1/100 to ˂1/10)||Nauseainjection site redness|
|Uncommon (≥1/1 000 to ˂1/100)||LymphadenopathyInsomniapain in extremityMalaiseinjection site itching|
|Rare (≥1/10 000 to ˂ 1/1 000)||Bell’s palsy (acute peripheral facial paralysis)|
|Not known (cannot be estimated from available data)||Anaphylaxishypersensitivity|
Moderna COVID-19 vaccine
This vaccine was developed by Moderna (an American pharmaceutical and biotechnology company), the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA).
In a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine, a two-dose regimen of this vaccine conferred 95% protection against Covid-19 virus. The second dose must be administered 21 days after the first one.
Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in the Philippines:
- March 7, 2021 – Through a bilateral deal with the Philippine government, vaccine czar Carlito Galvez Jr. announced that Moderna Inc will soon supply the country with over 13 million doses, delivery will start in the middle of the year.
Possible Moderna COVID-19 vaccine Side Effects include:
- Pain, redness, and swelling in the injection site
- Muscle pain
Johnson & Johnson (J&J) vaccine
This vaccine was developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica (a Belgium based division of Johnson & Johnson) in collaboration with the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School).
While both Pfizer and Moderna use mRNA technology, the Johnson & Johnson vaccines use double-stranded DNA. Researchers added this DNA to a disabled and modified Adenovirus which will enter the cells. Adenovirus or Adenovirus 26 is a common virus, completely unrelated to the SARS-COV-2 virus, that usually causes colds or flu-like symptoms. It can’t replicate in the body, and will therefore not give the recipient a viral infection.
The body will use the DNA inside the adenovirus to make into RNA which in turn becomes the spike protein of the coronavirus, triggering an immune response of the body. This builds immune memory, so the body can fight off the pathogen in the future.
What makes the Johnson & Johnson vaccine better than the other genetic vaccines is that it only needs to be administered once. It can be stored in refrigerator temperatures for months at a time, while mRNA vaccines require specific cold temperatures with a small leeway to administer once out of storage. It is relatively easier to distribute, maintain, and store, making it appealing for vaccinations in rural areas.
Based on the United State’s Food and Drug Administration analysis, here are the efficacy rates of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine:
- Overall efficacy rate:
- 66% globally
- 72% in the US
- 64% in South Africa
- 61% in Brazil
- 66% effective against moderate-to-severe COVID-19 cases at least 28 days after vaccination
- 77% effective against severe or critical COVID-19 cases at least 14 days after vaccination
- 85% effective against severe or critical COVID-19 cases at least 28 days after vaccination
Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine in the Philippines:
- March 1, 2021 – Philippine Ambassador to the U.S. Jose Romualdez announced that the Philippines has reserved 6 million doses of the Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine, expected to arrive by the second half of the year
HOW TO GET VACCINATED IN THE PHILIPPINES?
The Department of Health released a list of priority groups for vaccination.
Before planning to enlist for vaccination, please identify your priority group below (Source: https://www.facebook.com/OfficialDOHgov):
PRIORITY GROUP A
|A1||Workers in frontline health services|
|A2||All senior citizens|
|A3||Person with comorbidities|
|A4||Frontline personnel in essential sectors, including uniformed personnel|
PRIORITY GROUP B
|B1||Teachers and social workers|
|B2||Other government workers|
|B3||Other essential workers|
|B4||Other groups at significantly higher risk for COVID-19 (other than senior citizens and indigent population)|
|B5||Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs)|
|B6||Other remaining workforce|
PRIORITY GROUP C
|C||The rest of the Filipino population|
To ensure smooth vaccination efforts across the country, walk-ins at vaccination sites are not allowed. Therefore, after identifying your priority group, contact your LGU to enlist in the COVID-19 Vaccine Masterlist. Those under priority group A1 were already enlisted and submitted to DOH on February 15. The rest of the priority groups should enlist before the following deadlines:
- March 31, 2021 – For those under priority group A2 to A5 and priority group B.
- June 30, 2021 – For those under priority group C.
When enlisting, vaccine recipients must provide the following information:
- ID (QR code, PhilHealth number, etc.)
After enlisting, wait to confirm your registration and instructions on how to proceed, such as your vaccination schedule.
WHERE TO FIND COVID-19 VACCINES IN THE PHILIPPINES
As of March 15, there are a total of 929 vaccination sites conducting vaccinations in 17 regions all over the country. Some of these vaccination sites are priority regional hospitals listed below.
Note: The list below is subject to change alongside COVID-19 updates by region. You may also contact your LGU or local health center for more information about COVID-19 vaccine sites.
|REGION||CAPITAL CITY||DELIVERED VACCINE||REGIONAL HOSPITALS||CONTACT INFORMATION|
|Region 1||Ilocos Region||San Fernando(La Union)||38,800 doses||ILOCOS TRAINING AND REGIONAL MEDICAL CENTERSAN FERNANDO, LA UNION||(072) 607 6418|
|MARIANO MARCOS MEMORIAL MEDICAL CENTERBATAC, ILOCOS NORTE||(077) 600 8000|
|REGION I MEDICAL CENTERDAGUPAN CITY, PANGASINAN||0915 906 3375|
|Region 2||Cagayan Valley||Tuguegarao||31,980 doses||BATANES GENERAL HOSPITALBASCO, BATANES||Ambulance Call 24/7:+(63)999-990-7567Administrative Office+(63)998-982-8104|
|CAGAYAN VALLEY MEDICAL CENTERTUGUEGARAO, CAGAYAN||(078) 302 0000|
|SOUTHERN ISABELA MEDICAL CENTERSANTIAGO CITY||(078) 305 0459|
|REGION II TRAUMA AND MEDICAL CENTERBAYOMBONG, NUEVA VIZCAYA||(078) 805 3561|
|Region 3||Central Luzon||San Fernando(Pampanga)||82,900 doses||BATAAN GENERAL HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL CENTERBALANGA, BATAAN||(047) 237 3635|
|JOSE B. LINGAD MEMORIAL REGIONAL HOSPITALSAN FERNANDO, PAMPANGA||(045) 961 2444|
|MARIVELES MENTAL HOSPITALMARIVELES, BATAAN||(047) 935 4617|
|PAULINO J. GARCIA MEMORIAL RESEARCH & MEDICAL CENTERCABANATUAN CITY||(044) 463 8888|
|TALAVERA GENERAL HOSPITALTALAVERA, NUEVA ECIJA||(044) 940 7136|
|Region 4 – A||Calabarzon||Calamba||91,200 doses||BATANGAS MEDICAL CENTERKUMINTANG IBABA, BATANGAS CITY||(043) 740 8307|
|Region 4 – B||Mimaropa||Calapan||25,000 doses||CULION SANITARIUM AND GENERAL HOSPITALCULION, PALAWAN||Arturo C. Cunanan, Jr., MD, MPH, FPLS, CSEE, PhDMedical Center Chief IChief – Culion Sanitarium and General HospitalContact Number: O9471417354|
|OSPITAL NG PALAWANPUERTO PRINCESA CITY||(048) 433 2621|
|Region 5||Bicol Region||Legazpi||34,000 doses||BICOL MEDICAL CENTERCONCEPCION PEQUEÑA, NAGA CITY||(054) 472 6125|
|BICOL REGIONAL TRAINING AND TEACHING HOSPITALLEGASPI CITY||(052) 732 5555|
|BICOL REGION GENERAL HOSPITAL AND GERIATRIC MEDICAL CENTER FORMER BICOL SANITARIUMCABUSAO, CAMARINES SUR||(054) 473 2244|
|CAR||Cordillera Administrative Region||Baguio||25,600 doses||BAGUIO GENERAL HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL CENTERBGHMC CMPD., BAGUIO CITY||(074) 661 7910|
|CONNER DISTRICT HOSPITALCONNER, APAYAO||Dr. NELSON RIGORChief of Hospital II(074) 442-8096|
|FAR NORTH LUZON GENERAL HOSPITAL & TRAINING CENTERLUNA, APAYAO||DR. MARLENE P. LIBATIQUE-LUBOMedical Center Chief I(074) 442-8096|
|LUIS HORA MEMORIAL REGIONAL HOSPITALBAUKO, MT. PROVINCE||0939 903 8048|
|NCR||National Capital Region||Manila||278,870 doses||DR. JOSE N. RODRIGUEZ MEMORIAL HOSPITALTALA, CALOOCAN CITY||(02) 8294 2571|
|LAS PIÑAS GENERAL HOSPITAL AND SATELLITE TRAUMA CENTERLAS PIÑAS CITY||(02) 8873 0557|
|SAN LORENZO RUIZ GENERAL HOSPITALMALABON,METRO MANILA||(02) 8294 4853|
|VALENZUELA MEDICAL CENTERKARUHATAN, VALENZUELA CITY||(02) 8294 6711|
|Region 6||Western Visayas||Iloilo City||47,160 doses||CORAZON LOCSIN MONTELIBANO MEMORIAL REGIONAL HOSPITALBACOLOD CITY||(034) 703 1350|
|DON JOSE MONFORT MEDICAL CENTER EXTENSION HOSPITALBAROTAC NUEVO, ILOILO||(033) 361 2011|
|WESTERN VISAYAS MEDICAL CENTERMANDURRIAO, ILOILO CITY||(02) 8942 6843|
|WESTERN VISAYAS SANITARIUMSANTA BARABARA, ILOILO||(033) 523 8455|
|Region 7||Central Visayas||Cebu City||110,760 doses (10.3 percent)||DON EMILIO DEL VALLE MEMORIAL HOSPITALUBAY, BOHOL||(038) 518 8301|
|EVERSLEY CHILDS SANITARIUMMANDAUE CITY, CEBU||(032) 238 6811|
|GOV. CELESTINO GALLARES MEMORIAL MEDICAL CENTERTAGBILARAN CITY||(038) 411 4868|
|ST. ANTHONY MOTHER AND CHILD HOSPITALCEBU CITY||(032) 418 9477|
|CEBU SOUTH MEDICAL CENTER FORMER TALISAY DISTRICT HOSPITALCITY OF TALISAY, CEBU||(032) 273 3226|
|VICENTE SOTTO MEMORIAL MEDICAL CENTERCEBU CITY||(032) 253 9891|
|Region 8||Eastern Visayas||Tacloban||27,650 doses||EASTERN VISAYAS REGIONAL MEDICAL CENTERTACLOBAN CITY, LEYTE||0935 678 9109|
|SCHISTOSOMIASIS CONTROL AND RESEARCH HOSPITALPALO, LEYTE||(053) 832 1350|
|Region 9||Zamboanga Peninsula||Pagadian||30,000 doses||BASILAN GENERAL HOSPITALISABELA CITY, BASILAN||SITTI NURUSSAMI CASALIN-AMILASANMedical Center Chief I(062) 200-3427, 955-0437|
|DR. JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL HOSPITALDAPITAN CITY, ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE||Dr. MARIA DINNA VIRAY-PARIÑASMedical Center Chief I(065) 213-6421|
|LABUAN GENERAL HOSPITALLABUAN, ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR||(062) 991 3380|
|MARGOSATUBIG REGIONAL HOSPITALMARGOSATUBIG, ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR||0977 756 8712|
|MINDANAO CENTRAL SANITARIUMPASOBOLONG, ZAMBOANGA CITY||(062) 957-1494 – Office of the Chief of Hospital & Cashier(062) 957-1483 – Billing & Claims Unit(062) 926-0177 – Emergency Room|
|ZAMBOANGA CITY MEDICAL CENTERZAMBOANGA CITY||(062) 991 0573|
|Region 10||Northern Mindanao||Cagayan de Oro||39,400 doses||MAYOR HILARION A. RAMIRO SR. MEDICAL CENTEROZAMIS CITY||(088) 521 0440|
|NORTHERN MINDANAO MEDICAL CENTERCAGAYAN DE ORO CITY||(08822) 726362|
|AMAI PAKPAK MEDICAL CENTERMARAWI CITY, LANAO DEL SUR||(063) 876 0001|
|Region 11||Davao Region||Davao City||53,600||DAVAO REGIONAL MEDICAL CENTERTAGUM, DAVAO DEL NORTE||Dr. BRYAN O. DALIDMedical Center Chief II(084) 216-9127 /(084) 216-9131 loc 808/809|
|SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES MEDICAL CENTERDAVAO CITY||(082) 227 2731|
|Region 12||Soccsksargen||Koronadal||52,950 doses||SULU SANITARIUMJOLO, SULU||(062) 991 3380|
|COTABATO REGIONAL AND MEDICAL CENTERCOTABATO CITY||(064) 421 2340|
|COTABATO SANITARIUMSULTAN KUDARAT, MAGUINDANAO||(064) 429 0082|
|Region 13||Caraga||Butuan||23,740 doses||ADELA SERRA TY MEMORIAL MEDICAL CENTERTANDAG, SURIGAO DEL SUR||(086) 211 4306|
|CARAGA REGIONAL HOSPITALSURIGAO CITY||(086) 826 2459|
|BARMM||Bangsamoro||Cotabato City||18,400 doses||Maguindanao Provincial HospitalShariff Aguak, Maguindanao|
|Sulu Provincial HospitalJolo, Sulu||0917 711 1300|
|Datu Halun Sakilan Memorial HospitalBonggao, Tawi-Tawi||0918 923 6240|
|Lamitan District HospitalLamitan City|
|Basilan Provincial HospitalIsabela City, Basilan|
Also Read: How to Acquire COVID-19 Vaccines in CDO